Food Allergies in Dogs and Cats (2023)

Canine Food Allergy Lesions

Food Allergies in Dogs and Cats (1)

Graphic by MarVistaVet

Food Allergies in Dogs and Cats (2)

Graphic by Mar VistaVet

Your Pet's Itchy Skin

Itchy skin in dogs and cats is often more than just a minor annoyance. Red, oozing bald patches; rashes; and large expanses of hair loss are unfortunate markers of very real discomfort. The cause should be determined.

(Video) Food Allergies in Dogs and Cats

Food allergy is one of the itchiest conditions for cats and dogs. Animals eat a variety of processed food proteins, flavorings, and colorings thatare further processed inside their bodies. Proteins may be combined or changed into substances recognized by the immune system as foreign invaders to be attacked. The resulting inflammation may target the gastrointestinal (GI) tract or other organ systems, but in dogs and cats it is the skin that most often suffers from this immunologic activity. Cats itch around the face or neck which produces scabs and hair loss. In dogs, signs include facial itching, foot or limb chewing, itchy anal area, and recurrent ear infections.

Many people erroneously assume itching due to food allergy requires a recent diet change of some sort. In fact, the opposite is true.

Food allergies require time to develop; most animals have been eating the offending food for years with no trouble.

What Kind of Allergy?

Diagnosing and treating allergic skin disease and its secondary infections make up a large proportion of cases seen in small animal practice. Pets can be allergic to insect bites (fleas are not inherently itchy unless the pet is allergic to flea bites), airborne proteins (such as molds, pollens, and dust mite parts) or foods. Pets can and often do have multiple allergies adding together to make them itchy. The skin infections that come from scratching perpetuate the itching. To solve the problem, the infection must be cleared up and the offending allergen(s) removed from the pet's world.

There is controversy about how common food allergy is in dogs and cats. Some experts feel it is relatively rare while others feel is much more common than we realize. It is hard to tell because there is no simple test for food allergy and the skin lesion distribution is difficult to distinguish from that of airborne allergy, which is frequently concurrent in the same patient.

So what are our clues that a pet has a food allergy? There are several hints:

  • The itching is not seasonal (this is obviously hard to tell in areas that do not freeze during winter).
  • Itching started when the pet was less than 6 months of age or greater than 5-6 years of age.
  • No response to treatment for sarcoptic mange(a condition with a similar itchy skin pattern).
  • Corticosteroids have not been helpful in managing the itching. Corticosteroids may or may not work on food allergy itching but they almost always work for other allergies.
  • There are accompanying intestinal signs like vomiting or diarrhea. These are seen in 30 percent of food allergic pets.
  • The lesion distribution is compatible with food allergy, especially if an itchy anal area and/or recurrent ear infections are involved.

Any of the above findings or observations warrant pursuit of food allergy.

Please note that several of the above criteria relate to what you observe at home. Trouble results when the veterinarian must speak to different family members about the pet and there is disagreement in their observations. It is best to have one person, preferably the one who has the most contact with the pet, be the spokesperson and make the relevant judgments.

The Flea Factor

Food Allergies in Dogs and Cats (3)

Ctenocephalides Felis. Photo by Dr. Cathy Wilkie.

(Video) Food Allergies In Dogs & Cats | How To Perform An Elimination Diet | Your Vet Online

Some animals have many allergies. It would not be particularly unusual for a pet to have a food allergy and another type of allergy at the same time.

Ensure immaculate flea control for any itchy pet!

For more information on the current proliferation of flea products, seea product comparison chart so you can pick the best product for your situation. Remember, all dogs and cats in the home must be treated.

How to Deal with the Food Allergy Suspect: The Hypoallergenic Diet Trial

What about Blood/Hair/Saliva Tests for Food Allergy?
The short answer is to not waste money on these tests. Blood tests for allergy can detect antibodies against certain food proteins, but this does not necessarily mean the pet has an allergy. It may mean nothing more than the pet has eaten that type of protein before. Furthermore, the pet's body may alter a food protein during digestion and it is the altered protein that generates the allergy. There is no predicting how a protein could be altered and thus no test can be devised for altered proteins. Laboratory tests are simply not valid for determining if a pet has an allergy against a certain type of food.

The Basic Principle
To determine whether or not a food allergy or intolerance is causing the skin problem, a hypoallergenic diet is fed for a set period of time. If the pet recovers, the original diet is fed for up to two weeks to see if itching resumes. If we see recovery with the test diet and itch with the original diet, then food allergy is diagnosed and the pet is returned to either the test diet or another appropriate commercial food indefinitely.

There is no other way to determine if a pet has a food allergy. Blood tests are not useful.

Before reviewing diet strategies for this process, here are some additional concerns:

(Video) Allergies in Dogs: Top 5 Remedies to Stop the Itching

  • The diet must be strict (meaning the pet should not have any other protein sources besides the test protein). This includes rawhides and chew toys, flavored chewable medications (these will need to be changed for unflavored tablets) and vitamins, and treats.
  • All family members must be on board with the trial. No one should be giving the pet other foods or treats when no one else is looking.
  • It is probably best for all animals in the house to be fed the test protein so as not to have food-sharing issues.
  • Itching must be managed during the trial in a way that the results of the trial are not foiled.
  • Diet trials often span a season change period. If a dog has a pollen allergy and winter comes during the period of the diet trial, it may appear that the diet worked when, in fact, the seasons simply changed. This is why diet challenge is important at the end, even if the pet is doing well.

What is a Good Hypoallergenic Diet?

There are two approaches to test diets: novel protein and hydrolyzed protein. Traditionally, a novel protein is used. This is a diet with a single protein source that the patient has never eaten before. It typically takes years to become allergic to a food protein so the patient should not be allergic to something new.

Fortunately, many pet food companies have discerned the need for diets using unusual proteinand carbohydrate sources with a minimum of additives. Foods can be obtained based on venison and potato, fish and potato, egg and rice, duck and pea, and even kangaroo. Diets used for allergy trials must contain basically one protein and one carbohydrate source and neither can be something the pet has had before. Recently several diets that include duck, venison, and so on have been released to the general market. Be aware of foods that contain these ingredients because these ingredients will not be useable for future diet trials if they were ever used in the pet's regular food.

It is important that no unnecessary medications be given during the diet trial. No edible chew toys (such as rawhides or bones) should be given. Treats must be based on the same food sources as the test diet. (Beware of rice cakes, though, as wheat is commonly used as a filler.) Chewable heartworm preventives should be replaced with tablets.

Over the Counter Food? Therapeutic Diet? Home Cooked?
Recently several pet food companies have released single protein diets for over-the-counter sales. These tend to cost less than the therapeutic diets available from your veterinarian's office directly. While these diets are attractive, they are probably not a good choice for an actual diet trial. Immunological tests on these foods found that many of them contain additional proteins (probable contaminants from prior batches in the pet food factory). These impurities could defeat a diet trial which is hard enough to perform without such issues. The therapeutic diets did not have these contaminants.

Home cooking is a fine alternative to commercially prepared foods for the diet trial. The problem is that the test diets will most likely not be balanced but for the 2 months or so of testing, this should not be a problem. Home cooking is a bit of an inconvenience but for the right person, it is a good choice. Ideally, a nutritionist should be involved in designing the diet. Recipes for appropriate diets can be purchased through BalanceIt, Petdiets.comor by any nutritionist listed at the American College of Veterinary Nutrition web site.

The Hydrolyzed Protein Method

Recently a new approach has been introduced using therapeutic diets made from hydrolyzed proteins. This means that a conventional protein source is used but the protein is broken down into molecules too small to excite the immune system. Some hydrolyzed diets are on the market; discuss with your veterinarian which is best for your pet.

How Long to Feed the Trial Diet

Studies have shown that 80 percent of dogs will have shown a response by 4 to 6 weeks on the diet but by extending the diet to 8 weeks, 90 percent will respond. The Labrador retriever and cocker spaniel appear to require longer trials. Most veterinary dermatologists recommend 8 to 12 weeks, which is a long time to be strict on the diet but that is the only way to detect food allergic dogs.

Food Allergies in Dogs and Cats (4)

Photo by VIN

(Video) How To Know If Your Pet Has A Protein Allergy

Most commercial diets used in food allergy trials have a 100 percent guarantee.This means that if your pet doesn’t like the food, the food can be returned for a complete refund, even if the bag is opened. This is especially helpful for feline patients, as cats are famous for being choosy about what they are willing to eat.

What to do if the Diet is Successful?

To confirm food allergy, return to the original food; itching generally resumes within 14 days if food allergy was truly the reason for the itchy skin. Many people do not want to take a chance of returning to itching if the patient is doing well; it is not unreasonable to simply stay with the test diet if the pet remains free of symptoms. Often it is difficult to remember 10 to 12 weeks later how itchy the dog used to be before the diet trial. The diet challenge helps make it more obvious whether the diet trial has worked or not.

It is possible to more specifically determine the identity of the offending foods after the pet is well. To do this, a pure protein source (such as cooked chicken, tofu, wheat flour, or any other single food) is added to the test diet with each feeding. If the pet begins to itch within2 weeks, then that protein source represents one of the pet's allergens. Return to the test diet until the itching stops and try another pure protein source. If no itching results after two weeks of feeding a test protein, the pet is not allergic to this protein.

What to do if the Diet is Unsuccessful?

Assuming secondary skin infections have been controlled, an unsuccessful food trial is strongly suggestive that an inhalant allergy is the primary problem but there are some other considerations that should at least be mentioned:

  • Are you certain that the dog received no other food or substances orally during the trial?
  • Was sarcoptic mange ruled out?
  • Your pet may require a longer diet trial. Are you certain regarding the factor which pointed toward the food allergy?

If your pet has not been biopsied, now may be a good time. If an inhalant allergy has risen to the top of the list, symptomatic relief either via medication, baths with specific shampoos, or allergy shots will likely be necessary. Chronic itchiness can be extremely uncomfortable and prompt relief is our goal as well as yours.

Information on itch relief.
Information on inhalant allergy.
Information on sarcoptic mange.

(Video) Cat and Dog Allergy Testing ( Blood vs Skin vs Food)


Are people with dog allergies also allergic to cats? ›

Can Dogs and Cats Be Allergic to Each Other? The answer to this question is yes, dogs and cats can be allergic to each other. In fact, not only is it possible for dogs to be allergic to cats and vice versa, but it's also possible for dogs to be allergic to other dogs and for cats to be allergic to other cats.

What is the number 1 food allergy in dogs? ›

"The most common food allergens in dogs are proteins..." The most common food allergens in dogs are proteins, especially those from dairy, beef, chicken, chicken eggs, soy, or wheat gluten. Each time a pet eats food containing these substances, the antibodies react with the antigens, and symptoms occur.

Which is more common cat allergies or dog allergies? ›

Cat allergies are more common — and often more severe — than dog allergies.

What makes cats and dogs allergic to? ›

You are allergic to the protein that is found in the pet's dander (dead skin cells) saliva, and urine. The hair, fur, or feathers collect the dander. It can also carry other allergens like dust mites, mold, and pollen.

How do you live with a cat and dog allergy? ›

Besides making an appointment with an ENT specialist, there are some adjustments that make life better at home while still enjoying your furry best friend.
  • Don't Allow Your Pet to Sleep in Your Bedroom. ...
  • Purchase a HEPA Air Cleaner or Impermeable Covers for Your Bed. ...
  • Wash Your Pet and Vacuum Often.

How long does it take for dog food allergies to clear up? ›

It can take several weeks to months for clinical signs to resolve once the allergenic agent is removed from the animal's diet. Up to 30% of food-allergic pets may have other allergies, such as a flea allergy dermatitis or atopy (environmental allergies).

What human food is best for dogs with allergies? ›

The best foods for dogs with allergies include proteins like rabbit and duck, veggies like green beans and broccoli, and fruits like apples, watermelon, and pears. But some foods shouldn't come close to the bowl of an allergy dog.

What foods to avoid for dogs with skin allergies? ›

The most common food allergens are:
  • Gluten.
  • Grains.
  • Eggs.
  • Soy.
  • Dairy.
  • Beef.
  • Chicken.
  • Lamb.
Oct 22, 2020

What are the symptoms of a dog food allergy? ›

Signs and symptoms of food allergies in dogs might include:
  • Itchy skin. Itching is a common symptom of an underlying food allergy. ...
  • Skin and ear infections. Skin lesions as a result of itching are a common symptom, manifesting in up to 80% of canine food allergy cases. ...
  • Hives. ...
  • Gastrointestinal issues. ...
  • Lethargy.
Oct 21, 2021

What is best treatment for dog allergies? ›

Treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids or antihistamines, will quickly block the allergic reaction in most cases. Fatty acid supplementation in the diet can sometimes improve the response to steroids and antihistamines.

How do you get rid of dog allergies naturally? ›

Apple cider vinegar, coconut oil, or aloe vera can be put on the skin to calm any itching. A relaxing oatmeal bath can relieve itching, burning, and dry skin.

Does Benadryl help with pet allergies? ›

Benadryl is a great medication for use in dogs with mild-to-moderate allergies. Seasonal allergies, food allergies, environmental allergies, and allergic reactions to snake and insect bites all respond to Benadryl in most cases.

Does Benadryl help with cat allergies? ›

How to treat cat allergies. Avoiding the allergen is best, but when that's not possible, the following treatments may help: antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl), loratadine (Claritin) or cetirizine (Zyrtec) corticosteroid nasal sprays such as fluticasone (Flonase) or mometasone (Nasonex)

What is the most common cause of pet allergies? ›

Most often, pet allergy is triggered by exposure to the dead flakes of skin (dander) a pet sheds. Any animal with fur can be a source of pet allergy, but pet allergies are most commonly associated with cats and dogs.

Is there a cure for dog and cat allergies? ›

You can't get rid of pet allergies. However, you can take OTC antihistamine pills, nasal corticosteroids and nasal antihistamines to treat your symptoms. For some people, allergy shots (immunotherapy) offer a long-term solution to managing pet allergies.

How long do cat and dog allergies last? ›

How long do pet allergy symptoms last? Pet allergy symptoms will last until the animal is permanently removed from the home. However, many symptoms can last for months afterward as pet dander and fur can stay in a home for months and even years later. Often, carpets hold animal dander and fur much longer.

Does Zyrtec help with pet allergies? ›

Pet allergy relief

When you can't live without your pet, a medicine for dog and cat allergies can help control your pet allergy symptoms. ZYRTEC® starts working at hour 1 and stays strong day after day, so you can reduce your cat and dog allergy symptoms.

Can dogs outgrow food allergies? ›

You cannot cure your dog's food allergies, but you can successfully manage them with specialized treatments and a hypoallergenic diet. Once the allergen is identified, the best treatment is total avoidance.

Is rice good for dogs with allergies? ›

Fully cooked whole grain brown rice is even recommended for dogs with certain environmental allergies, or sensitive stomachs, because of its ability to regulate the digestive tract and reduce overall stress in the dog's system.

How long does food allergy episode last? ›

What to Expect: Hives from foods often last just a short time. They often are gone in less than 6 hours.

What can I add to my dogs food for itchy skin? ›

Here are a few common supplements recommended by veterinarians.
  • Fish Oil. The Omega-3 fats found in fish oil help reduce inflammation, which can lessen the intensity of many allergies. ...
  • Coconut Oil. Coconut oil can improve many skin conditions including itchiness and dryness. ...
  • Digestive Enzymes. ...
  • Quercetin. ...
  • Yucca.
Mar 3, 2016

Why is chicken not good for dogs with allergies? ›

Despite the belief that grains are a big allergen for dogs, most commonly, dogs are allergic to a type of protein in their diet. The most common culprits are proteins found in chicken, beef, lamb, soy, egg, dairy, and wheat.

What do vets recommend for dogs with itchy skin? ›

Your vet will conduct a thorough assessment to determine the cause of your pet's itching, but anti-itch medications, such as Oclacitinib (Apoquel), and Prednisolone may be prescribed to reduce the itching. Antihistamines can also be used in some cases, as well as medicated shampoos and topical ointments.

What meat should dogs not eat? ›

Common meats to avoid are any processed meats like sausage, bologna, hot dogs etc. Also avoid giving your dog any rib bones as they are extremely brittle and can damage your dog's stomach and throat.

Are carrots good for dogs with allergies? ›

As with any food related allergy, a diet containing carrots can be problematic if your pet has a sensitivity to them. Protect yourself and your pet.

Is salmon good for dogs with allergies? ›

Along with some other types of fish, salmon is also a good protein source. In fact, salmon is a common ingredient in high-quality dog foods. If your dog is allergic to more common sources of protein like chicken, salmon may be a good alternative.

What are the signs of rice allergy in dogs? ›

If your dog is allergic to rice or other grains, they might have symptoms, such as itchy skin, hair loss and ear infections. But those same symptoms could be caused by other allergies or health issues.

What is the best diet for dogs with skin conditions? ›

Fish-based diets are often the first recommendation for itchy dogs, as they are at the same time a novel protein diet and contain high levels of natural fish oil, making them similar to a 'skin care diet'. This means they are likely to help with any type of skin allergy.

Is chicken and rice good for dogs with allergies? ›

A bland diet of chicken and rice is a great way to help a dog that is suffering from digestive issues. It can also help dogs that are suffering from a loss of appetite and can be a great base for an elimination diet to detect allergies and food sensitivities.

What are three symptoms of a food allergy? ›

Some common symptoms include: an itchy sensation inside the mouth, throat or ears. a raised itchy red rash (urticaria, or "hives") swelling of the face, around the eyes, lips, tongue and roof of the mouth (angioedema)

What is the most common dog allergy? ›

Skin allergies, called allergic dermatitis, are the most common type of allergic reactions in dogs.

Is Benadryl or Zyrtec better for dogs? ›

Other safe antihistamines for dogs include Claritin (loratadine) and Zyrtec (cetirizine). They produce less sedation than Benadryl does but could still make your dog drowsy. Warning: Make sure your OTC allergy medicine only contains antihistamine.

Which antihistamine is best for pet allergies? ›

The most commonly known antihistamine is Benadryl, says Dr. Shah, but it can cause drowsiness. That's why he recommends second-generation antihistamines like Claritin, Zyrtec, or Allegra, which are less sedating.

Can apple cider vinegar help dogs with allergies? ›

Apple Cider Vinegar can be added to your dog's diet to support him through an allergy reaction internally and it can also be used topically for particularly itchy or inflamed skin during allergy season.

Is Zyrtec or Claritin better for dogs? ›

Cetirizine (Zyrtec® or Reactine®) is one of the most commonly used over-the-counter antihistamines recommended by veterinarians. Claritin® can be used but is not typically recommended by veterinarians as some forms of Claritin® contain decongestants such as pseudoephedrine which is very toxic to dogs.

How many Benadryl should I give my dog for allergies? ›

Benadryl Tablets

According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, the standard dose for Benadryl is 2-4 milligrams per kilogram of body weight, or 0.9-1.8 milligrams (mg) of Benadryl per pound. Therefore, a simple and practical dose is 1 mg of Benadryl per pound of your dog's weight, given 2-3 times a day.

How many times a day can I give my dog Benadryl for allergies? ›

Benadryl dosage for dogs.

According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, the safe dosage is 2-4 milligrams of medication per kilogram of weight, or 0.9 to 1.8 milligrams per pound. This amount can be administered two to three times daily, depending on your dog's symptoms.

Does Flonase help with pet allergies? ›

A product like FLONASE can help treat your allergy symptoms while also allowing you to keep your beloved companion. FLONASE Allergy Relief helps to relieve your worst pet allergy symptoms – including nasal congestion, sneezing, itchy, watery eyes and a runny nose.

How do you get rid of cat allergies naturally? ›

Can You Reduce Your Cat Allergy Symptoms Naturally?
  1. Change Your Laundry Habits. ...
  2. Try Using A Filter. ...
  3. Frequently Dust And Vacuum. ...
  4. Brush Your Cat Regularly. ...
  5. Bathe Your Cat. ...
  6. Change Your Cat's Diet. ...
  7. Set Boundaries for Your Cat. ...
  8. When to Talk to an Allergist.
Aug 19, 2022

What OTC meds can I take for cat allergies? ›

Over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamine tablets include fexofenadine (Allegra Allergy), loratadine (Claritin, Alavert) and cetirizine (Zyrtec Allergy); OTC antihistamine syrups are available for children. Prescription antihistamine tablets, such as levocetirizine (Xyzal) and desloratadine (Clarinex), are other options.

How do you get rid of pet allergies fast? ›

7 Tips to Combat Pet Allergies
  1. Wash up. Ideally, you'd wash your pets once or twice a week. ...
  2. Declare the bedroom a pet-free zone. ...
  3. Brush or comb regularly. ...
  4. Clean and pick up. ...
  5. Use an allergen-capturing air filter. ...
  6. Consider the whole environment. ...
  7. Get medical help. ...
  8. Sources:

Do pet allergies get worse with age? ›

Dog allergy symptoms more commonly affect the skin and ears. While humans often outgrow allergies, allergies in dogs tend to worsen as they get older.

What is the most common allergy in dogs? ›

Skin allergies, called allergic dermatitis, are the most common type of allergic reactions in dogs.

How do I know if my dog is allergic to certain foods? ›

Signs and symptoms of food allergies in dogs might include:
  • Itchy skin. Itching is a common symptom of an underlying food allergy. ...
  • Skin and ear infections. Skin lesions as a result of itching are a common symptom, manifesting in up to 80% of canine food allergy cases. ...
  • Hives. ...
  • Gastrointestinal issues. ...
  • Lethargy.
Oct 21, 2021

What are dogs extremely allergic to? ›

Common allergens include pollens, mold spores, dust mites, shed skin cells (like pet allergies in humans), insect proteins such as flea saliva, and some medications.

What is the most common meat allergy in dogs? ›

Beef. Proteins are common food allergens. Feeding your dog a single food for years increases their potential to develop an intolerance or allergy to one or more ingredients. Beef is one of the most common ingredients in a lot of pet foods, which may be the reason it's the most common food allergen.

What are the signs of chicken allergy in dogs? ›

Symptoms of Chicken Allergy in Dogs

Symptoms could include red or itchy skin (especially on the paws, abdomen, groin, face, and ears), rashes, fur loss, or hives. Skin and ear infections commonly occur. And wounds or “hot spots” may develop due to trauma from a dog repeatedly licking or chewing their skin.

Does Benadryl help dogs with food allergies? ›

What Does Benadryl Treat in Dogs? Benadryl is a great medication for use in dogs with mild-to-moderate allergies. Seasonal allergies, food allergies, environmental allergies, and allergic reactions to snake and insect bites all respond to Benadryl in most cases.

What can I feed my dog with food allergies? ›

Best Foods for Dogs with Allergies
  1. Nom Nom Fresh (Limited Ingredient Food) ...
  2. Wellness Simple (Limited Ingredient Food) ...
  3. Royal Canin Veterinary Diets Hydrolyzed Protein (Hypoallergenic Food) ...
  4. Merrick Limited Ingredient Diet (Limited Ingredient Food) ...
  5. Purina Pro Plan Veterinary Diets (Hypoallergic Food)
Nov 15, 2021

What can I give my dog when I run out of food if they're allergic to chicken? ›

Plain boiled rice. Plain, unprocessed oatmeal. Peanut butter (no xylitol)

What can I feed my dog for itchy skin? ›

Here are a few common supplements recommended by veterinarians.
  • Fish Oil. The Omega-3 fats found in fish oil help reduce inflammation, which can lessen the intensity of many allergies. ...
  • Coconut Oil. Coconut oil can improve many skin conditions including itchiness and dryness. ...
  • Digestive Enzymes. ...
  • Quercetin. ...
  • Yucca.
Mar 3, 2016

What are dogs most allergic to beef or chicken? ›

Study Shows Meat & Dairy are Most Common Allergens in Dogs
  • beef (102 dogs, 34%)
  • dairy products (51 dogs, 17%)
  • chicken (45 dogs, 15%)
  • wheat (38 dogs, 13%)
  • lamb (14, 5%)


1. Food Allergies and Your Pet
(Dr. Karen Becker)
2. 3 Signs Your Raw Fed Pet Might Have A Food Allergy
(Paws of Prey)
3. Food Allergies In Dogs: Holistic Answers
(Veterinary Secrets)
4. Food Allergy in Dogs: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment
(Our Pets Health)
5. 5 Signs of Food Allergies In Dogs
(Dogs Naturally Magazine)
6. Most Dog Owners Have Food Allergy Causes All Wrong...
(Our Pets Health)
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